What is Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery?

Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery refers to a collective term for surgical procedures used in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes. The primary goal of this surgical type is to achieve significant weight loss and improve health issues associated with obesity.

Types of Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery

Gastric Bypass Surgery

Gastric Bypass Surgery

In this procedure, a portion of the stomach is bypassed, reducing food intake and affecting digestion, resulting in weight loss.

Sleeve Gastrectomy

Sleeve Gastrectomy

This procedure involves reducing the size of the stomach to resemble a sleeve. It restricts food intake and encourages weight loss.

Adjustable Gastric Band

Adjustable Gastric Band

Placing an adjustable band around the stomach controls food intake. The band’s tightness can be modified to manage weight loss speed.

Biliopancreatic Diversion

Biliopancreatic Diversion

This procedure involves removing a portion of the stomach and reconfiguring the digestive pathways, limiting intake and absorption.

Who Should Consider Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery?

Candidates for Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery may include individuals with the following conditions:

Those with a Body Mass Index (BMI) above 40

Individuals with a BMI above 40 are considered severely obese and may be eligible for surgery.

Those with a BMI above 35 and obesity-related health issues (e.g., type 2 diabetes)

Individuals with a BMI above 35 who also have obesity-related health problems might be candidates for surgery.

Pre-Surgical Preparations

Prior to surgery, there are certain preparations you need to undertake. These preparations include:

Medical Evaluation and Counseling

The patient’s overall health, medical history, and current medications are assessed. Specialists determine if the patient is a suitable candidate for surgery.


Psychological Assessment

Besides the physical aspects, the psychological impacts of the surgery are also considered. Therefore, the patient’s psychological condition is evaluated.


Nutritional Counseling

The patient’s pre- and post-surgery dietary habits are adjusted. Counseling is provided regarding the effects and requirements of obesity surgery.

Post-Surgical Care

After surgery, there are certain care steps you need to undertake. These steps include:

Medication usage

Take all medications recommended by your doctor regularly.


Follow your nutrition plan and adhere to the prescribed eating, drinking, and exercise instructions.


After the surgery, you may need to limit your activity level. Follow your doctor’s instructions carefully.


Take care of yourself during the post-operative recovery process and follow your doctor’s recommendations.

Risks and Complications

After surgery, there are certain risks and complications you should be aware of. These may include:
  • There is a risk of infection at the surgical site. Proper care of wounds and stitches post-surgery is crucial.
  • Insufficient nutrition or absorption problems may occur. Therefore, adhering to the recommended diet by the nutritional counselor is critical.
  • As with any surgical procedure, there is a potential for anesthesia-related risks or post-surgery complications. Diligent post-surgery monitoring is necessary.